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Why Is Lithium Battery Capacity Declining?

Views: 208     Author: Hedy     Publish Time: 2023-06-06      Origin: Site

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Why Is Lithium Battery Capacity Declining?

What are the causes of the decrease in lithium battery capacity? Users who have used it should be aware that the capacity of lithium batteries decreases with time. The usage period of a lithium battery is mostly determined by its capacity. The higher the voltage of the lithium battery, the bigger its capacity, and hence the greater its load capacity. So, what are the elements that influence lithium battery capacity attenuation? Let's look at it together.

1. Cathode material structural changes in lithium batteries

The positive electrode material is a key component of lithium batteries. To preserve the neutral state of the material when the lithium ion battery is withdrawn from the positive electrode, the metal element will unavoidably be oxidized to a high oxidation state, which is followed by a change in composition. Component transition readily leads to phase transition and change in bulk phase structure. The electrode material's phase transition might result in changes in lattice properties and lattice misfit. The produced stress induces grain fracture and crack propagation, resulting in mechanical damage to the material's structure and a decrease in electrochemical performance.

2. Anode material structure in lithium batteries

Carbon materials, lithium titanate, and other lithium battery anode materials are commonly utilized, and the usual anode graphite is used for examination. The capacity of lithium-ion batteries is initially reduced during the creation stage, when SEI forms on the surface of the negative electrode, consuming some of the lithium ions. Changes in the graphite structure might cause battery capacity to decrease when lithium-ion batteries are utilized.

Graphite's morphology and structure remain same, but the width at half maximum of its (002) crystal plane increases, resulting in decreased grain size in the c-axis direction. The shift in crystal structure causes fissures in the carbon material, which damages the SEI film on the negative surface and encourages SEI film repair. Excessive SEI film growth consumes active lithium, resulting in irreversible capacity fading of lithium batteries.

3. Lithium battery electrolyte oxidation analysis and interface reaction

The electrolyte qualities have a major impact on lithium-ion battery specific capacity, life, rate charge-discharge performance, operating temperature range, and safety performance. The electrolyte is composed of three components: solvent, electrolyte, and additive. The breakdown of the solvent and the electrolyte will result in the loss of the lithium-ion battery's capacity. The breakdown and side reactions of the electrolyte are major contributors in lithium-ion battery capacity attenuation. Whatever positive and negative materials and procedures are utilized, the degradation of electrolyte and the interface interaction with positive and negative materials will result in capacity loss while recycling lithium batteries.

4. Overcharge reaction in a lithium battery's positive electrode

Positive electrode overload is probable when the ratio of positive electrode active material to negative electrode active material is too low. Overcharging the positive electrode of lithium batteries causes capacity loss mostly owing to the initiation of electrochemically inert compounds (such as Co3O4, Mn2O3, and others), which breaks the capacity balance between electrodes, and the capacity loss is irreversible.

5. Lithium battery electrode instability

During charging, the positive active material becomes unstable and interacts with the electrolyte, reducing capacity. The structural faults of the positive electrode material, the concentration of carbon black, and the high charging potential are the variables impacting the stability of the positive electrode material, with the structural defects of the positive electrode material being the most relevant.

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