Views: 202 Author: Hedy Publish Time: 2023-06-13 Origin: Site
With the rapid advancement of electronic technology, electronic facilities and equipment have significant power supply requirements. Lithium batteries are widely utilized as a power source in alternative energy vehicles, mobile phones, laptop computers, electric tools, cardiac pacemakers, backup power supplies, home appliances, and other applications. At the same time, the dangers of lithium batteries must not be overlooked.
A lithium battery is a type of battery that contains lithium metal or lithium alloy as the positive and negative material, as well as a non-aqueous electrolyte solution. Gilbert n. Lewis conceived and researched the lithium metal battery in 1912. M. S. Whittingham conceived and began researching lithium-ion batteries in the 1970s. Because lithium metal's chemical characteristics are exceedingly active, the manufacturing, storage, and usage of lithium metal have very stringent environmental requirements.
In general, manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in lithium metal batteries, lithium metal or its alloy metal as the cathode material, and a non-aqueous electrolyte solution.
(2)A lithium-ion battery
In general, lithium ion batteries employ lithium alloy metal oxide as the cathode material, graphite as the cathode material, and a non-aqueous electrolyte.
According to international regulations such as the United Nations Model Regulations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, the ICAO Technical Code for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air, and other international regulations, lithium batteries may fall under category 9 miscellaneous dangerous goods (Miscellaneous dangerous substances and goods, including substances hazardous to human health).
According to the United Nations "Model Regulations for the Recommendation on the Transport of Dangerous Goods," it is required to assess whether to use hazardous goods packaging based on the capacity of lithium batteries.
The lithium content of a lithium metal battery or lithium alloy battery is greater than 1G, and the total lithium content of a lithium metal or lithium alloy battery pack is greater than 2G; the watt hour rating of a lithium-ion battery exceeds 20W h, and the watt hour rating of a lithium-ion battery pack exceeds 100W H.
According to the requirements of Article 230 of the Special Provisions of Articles 2.9.4 and 3.3 in the United Nations Model Regulations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, as well as the provisions of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code and the International Civil Aviation Organization Technical Rules for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air, lithium batteries must pass a series of tests mandated by 38.3 of Part III of the United Nations Manual of International Standards. High simulation, high and low temperature cycle tests are among the test contents,vibration test, impact test, 55 ℃ external short circuit, impact test / extrusion test, overcharge test, forced discharge test, etc., to ensure the safety of lithium battery transportation.
According to Article 17 of the People's Republic of China's law on import and export commodity inspection, "enterprises that produce packaging containers for exporting dangerous goods must apply to the commodity inspection authorities for the performance appraisal of packaging containers." Enterprises that export dangerous items must apply to commodity inspection authorities for an evaluation of the usage of packing containers. Dangerous items cannot be shipped if they are packaged in unqualified containers."As a result, lithium batteries that must be packaged with dangerous goods should apply to local customs for the performance inspection and use appraisal of dangerous goods packaging for export before export, and obtain the "inspection result sheet of the performance of the transportation packaging of exit goods" and the "appraisal result sheet of the use of the transportation packaging of exit dangerous goods." According to the announcement on the electronicization of inspection and quarantine papers (Announcement No. 90 of the General Administration of Customs in 2018) and other related laws, the documents provided by firms can be simplified.
The inspection result sheet of transportation packaging performance of exit goods must be submitted to local customs by the packaging production enterprise of hazardous goods, and the code of the packaging production enterprise of export dangerous goods must be obtained prior to application.The performance inspection result sheet's validity time is defined by the material of the packaging container and the type of the products loaded. In general, it shall not exceed 12 months from the date of container manufacturing. If the items are not dispatched for export within the validity period and the exterior packing is in excellent condition, the firm can reapply for packaging performance inspection and utilize the goods for export after passing the inspection. The validity term of the reissued "inspection result sheet of packaging performance of entry-exit goods" shall be calculated from the date of completion of the inspection and shall not exceed 6 months.
Customs conducts code management on export dangerous products packaging production firms, and the code shall represent customs information directly under the region where the production enterprises are situated. The production business code is made up of the capital English letter C (which stands for "Customs") and six Arabic numbers. The first two Arabic digits (for example, 52) reflect the customs immediately beneath the region where the company is located, and the following four Arabic numerals (0001-9999) represent the producing enterprise.
The "identification result sheet for the use of transportation packages of outbound dangerous goods" is submitted to territorial customs by the dangerous goods manufacturing firm (i.e., lithium battery producer or exporter). The rated energy (w h) of the lithium battery must be indicated. When customs performs the identification of the usage of risky packages, it will be qualified based on the following contents:
1. Whether the packing container has clear, firm, and proper UN packaging marks, batch and dangerous goods marks, and whether the marks, marks, and packaging comply with the applicable standards.
2. The package's appearance should be clean, with no residue, contamination, or leaking.
3. Wooden and fiberboard cases must be firmly nailed when secured with nails, with the nail tips inverted and the nail tips and nail caps not protruding; the box must be intact and packed tightly. The corrugated box must be undamaged, the seal must be flat and solid, and the box must be packed tightly.
4. To avoid mutual contact, nonconductive materials must be isolated between each battery or battery pack, as well as between the top and lower levels of stacked batteries.
5. The battery must be supplied with a short-circuit protection device.
6. The battery's electrode should not sustain the mass of other stacked batteries.
7. International standards provide special restrictions for the packing of lithium batteries or lithium battery packs.
After the inspection of the package of export dangerous goods is qualified, customs will issue the inspection result sheet of the performance of the transportation package of exit goods and the identification result sheet of the use of the transportation package of exit dangerous goods, and the validity period of the certificate will be determined based on the characteristics of the goods and the mode of transportation.