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Lithium Iron Phosphate (LIFEPO4) Battery Charging

Views: 222     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-08-01      Origin: Site


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Lithium Iron Phosphate (LIFEPO4) Battery Charging

What is the proper way to charge a LiFePO4 battery? This is one of the most often asked questions by our clients. The answer is simple: of course, use a LiFePO4 battery charger. When charging LiFePO4 batteries, make sure you're not using a charger for other lithium-ion chemistries, which are usually intended for greater voltages than what LiFePO4 requires. We are frequently asked if we can charge LiFePO4 using a lead-acid battery charger. Yes, as long as the voltage is adjusted within the ranges that are appropriate for LiFePO4 batteries.

Lithium Iron Phosphate (LIFEPO4) Battery Charging

If LiFePO4 batteries are not entirely depleted, they do not need to be recharged after each usage. When liFePO4 batteries are partially charged (PSOC), they are not harmed. The LiFePO4 battery may be charged after each usage or after it has been drained to 80% DOD (20% SOC). If the Battery Management System (BMS) disconnects the battery owing to low voltage (voltage will be 10V), remove the load and replenish the battery immediately.

Temperature at which the battery is charged

LiFePO4 batteries may be charged safely at temperatures ranging from 0°C to 45°C (32°F to 113°F). When charging in high or low temperatures, LiFePO4 batteries do not require temperature correction for voltage.

If the BMS is detached owing to low temperatures, the cell must warm up before the BMS can be reconnected and charged. If the BMS is unplugged due to excessive heat, the battery must cool before the BMS accepts the battery charge. Refer to the data sheet for the relevant battery for BMS low and high temperature disconnect and reconnect parameters.

LIFEPO4 Battery Charging with Lead-Acid Chargers

Most lead-acid battery chargers may be used with LiFePO4 batteries as long as they meet the voltage requirements.

Liquid-rich battery charging algorithms frequently have voltages that are greater than the LiFePO4 charging requirement, causing the BMS to disconnect. If this occurs, it is usually a good idea to replace the charger with a LiFePO4 charging profile. Because the BMS safeguards the battery, using a lead-acid charger will not generally harm it.

It should be noted that if the BMS is detached due to low voltage, even if the charger has adequate charging parameters for charging LiFePO4, the lead-acid battery charger may be unable to reconnect the BMS. This is due to the fact that when the BMS is detached, the LiFePO4 battery has no voltage and the voltmeter reads 0V, however the lead-acid charger requires the battery to read voltage before charging can begin.

If the battery shows 0V, the lead acid battery charger will not recognize that it is connected and should begin charging. This is also true for some low-quality Li-ion battery chargers. To ensure optimum performance and lifespan, it is usually advised that you choose a good quality LiFePO4 charger.

Charging LIFEPO4 in parallel

When connecting LiFePO4 cells in parallel, make sure that the voltage between each cell is within 0.1V of each other before using them; this will reduce the possibility of cell imbalance.

The charging voltage for 12V LiFePO4 batteries should be between 14V and 14.2V. The charging voltage should be 28V - 28.4V while charging 24V batteries in tandem. A voltage of 42V - 42.6V is required to charge 36V LiFePO4 cells in tandem. Finally, a voltage of 56V - 56.8V is required to charge a 48V LiFePO4 battery. The voltage requirements for each system voltage are summarized in the table below.

The voltage parameters apply to the CC and CC-CV charging curves. If the voltage of your charger is lower than the voltages stated in the table, your battery will not be damaged, but it will be undercharged and will not offer the full rated capacity of the battery.

If the voltage of your charger exceeds the voltages mentioned in the table above, the BMS may disconnect the battery, and you may need to remove the load to reconnect it. To avoid this inconvenience, we propose that you replace your charger and invest in a good quality LiFePO4 battery charger.

LIFEPO4 battery charging in series

Before using cells connected in series, ensure that the voltage between each cell is within 50mV (0.05V). This will reduce the chance of cell imbalance. If your cells are out of balance and the voltage of any cell in the group is more than 50mV (0.05V), charge each cell separately to rebalance.

To avoid imbalance, charge each cell individually on a regular basis. It is important to use different chargers to charge each cell independently while charging LiFePO4 cells in succession to guarantee that the cells remain balanced. You may also use a 24V battery LiFePO4 charger or a 48V battery LiFePO4 charger to charge the complete system.

Using an alternator and a DC to DC charger to charge the LIFEPO4

The LiFePO4 battery can be charged without modification depending on the quality of the alternator. A low-quality alternator with poor voltage control, on the other hand, might cause the BMS to disconnect the LiFePO4 battery.

The alternator may be destroyed if the BMS disconnects the battery. Use a suitable, high-quality alternator or add a voltage regulator to protect your LiFePO4 battery and alternator. You may also use DC to DC chargers to charge your batteries, including household banks, in a safe and efficient manner. It is advised that a DC to DC charger be fitted when utilizing an alternator to charge LiFePO4 batteries.

Lithium battery fuel gauges

A voltage-based fuel gauge intended for lead-acid batteries will not reliably monitor the state of charge (SOC) of LiFePO4 batteries. To correctly monitor the status of charge of lithium iron phosphate batteries, please replace your fuel gauge with one that measures current rather than voltage.

We have a number of lithium battery PACK production lines, aging, capacity division and other production equipment and a large number of experienced industrial workers.


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