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How Does Temperature Affect Lithium Ion Battery Safety?

Views: 201     Author: Hedy     Publish Time: 2023-06-27      Origin: Site


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How Does Temperature Affect Lithium Ion Battery Safety?

Because lithium-ion batteries power a wide range of equipment, machines, automobiles, and cutting-edge technology, it's vital to understand how ambient temperature affects battery safety and functioning. The temperature within the lithium-ion battery can be directly influenced by ambient temperature, affecting the battery's performance and safety. This blog will explain how temperature affects lithium-ion batteries and what this implications for how you handle, charge, and store them.

Why do lithium ion batteries overheat?

A battery may become warm or hot for a variety of reasons.When the battery is shorted out outside, such as in a purse or a drawer, this can result in a short circuit.It's possible that the battery was placed somewhere alongside other metallic equipment; in that case, the metal components might have formed a bridge between the battery's positive and negative poles. If this happens, the battery will undergo an external short circuit and generate a lot of heat. When left loose and in drawers, purses, or similar scenarios, it is recommended to keep the battery in a bag or separated so it does not come into touch with other metallic components.An internal short circuit can occur if the battery receives a great shock, such as when it is dropped.The jolt from the shocker most likely triggered an infernal short circuit in this case. The battery will heat up and drain at a high current. It is recommended that the battery be protected from strong shocks. When to use: This occurs when a battery is wrongly inserted into the battery box or when a terminal is misplaced. Furthermore, a short circuit, forced charging, and battery heating are all possibilities. If the problem is just heating, please remove the battery from the device gently and allow it to cool before discarding. This battery should not be used again after cooling.

What temperature causes lithium ion batteries to become unstable?

Simply expressed, the temperature at which lithium ion batteries are stored has a direct influence on the chemical process that occurs inside the battery cell.At extremely low temperatures, the energy and power capacity of lithium-ion batteries may be limited. High internal battery temperatures, on the other hand, can be caused by high ambient temperatures and lower the battery's performance and power capacity.On top of this, high ambient temperatures bring extra obstacles and hazards. Thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery may occur if the temperature surpasses a particular threshold.Thermal runaway occurs when the capacity of the battery cell's heat dissipation is surpassed. Because high temperatures can trigger exothermic battery reactions, they commonly cause thermal runaway.The battery may be damaged as a result of the increased heat output caused by the reactions, which can potentially create workplace fires and explosions.Do you have a lot of lithium-ion batteries at your office? You must also be familiar with the issue of cascading thermal runaway. This occurs when neighboring battery cells that are not directly linked to the damaged battery die as a result of the high temperatures. This cascading effect of thermal runaway adds to the already severe fire and explosion threats posed by the affected battery cell.Lithium-ion battery fires are infamous for being intense, fast spreading, and difficult to extinguish. Toxic fumes from lithium battery fires can potentially be emitted in large quantities, harming human health. Every safety precaution should be taken to avoid such an occurrence from occurring at your place of work. Do you have a lot of lithium-ion batteries at your office? You must also be familiar with the issue of cascading thermal runaway. This occurs when neighboring battery cells that are not directly linked to the damaged battery die as a result of the high temperatures. This cascading effect of thermal runaway adds to the already severe fire and explosion threats posed by the affected battery cell.

What temperatures can lithium-ion batteries withstand?

Lithium-ion batteries are best stored at 15°C in a cool, dry atmosphere. Lithium-ion battery operating temperatures generally range from 5 to 20 degrees Celsius. Insufficiently cold temperatures, such as 0°C, can cause capacity loss because the low temperature slows down chemical processes inside the battery. Fire and explosion can occur in overheated conditions.When handling, charging, and storing lithium-ion batteries, like with any harmful substance or product, it is critical that you always read and follow the manufacturer's instructions. Temperature has an effect on three major battery properties: performance, longevity, and safety.However, the degree to which these measures are impacted by temperature varies; extreme heat affects a battery differently than extreme cold does. Let's first concentrate on how battery performance can be impacted by high temperatures.

Heat's Effects

Rising temperatures have an effect on the chemical processes that occur inside batteries. As the temperature of the battery rises, the chemical processes inside it accelerate. Higher temperatures have two effects on lithium-ion batteries: improved performance and increased battery storage capacity. According to a research published in Scientific Reports, increasing the temperature from 77 degrees Fahrenheit to 113 degrees Fahrenheit boosted maximum storage capacity by 20%. However, this greater performance has a drawback in that the battery's lifespan shortens with time. According to the same study, the lifespan deterioration is substantially more severe at higher temperatures when the battery is charged at 113 degrees as opposed to 77 degrees. At 77 degrees, the battery's performance only declined 3.3% throughout the first 200 cycles; at 113 degrees, it fell 6.7%.

Influence of Cold

Long-term cold conditions have a severe influence on battery efficiency and security. As the temperature lowers, the internal resistance of the battery increases. As a result, the battery is forced to work more to charge, reducing its capacity. It is critical to understand that different battery chemistries react differently to low temperatures, and that capacity loss is also affected by charge and discharge rates. A lead-acid battery, for example, may only provide half of its stated capacity at 0° F. Operating temperatures for batteries might vary depending on the kind of battery used.Lithium-ion batteries, for example, may be charged between 32°F and 113°F and discharged between -4°F and 140°F (although, operating at such high temperatures causes the previously described issues). Lead-acid batteries, on the other hand, may be charged and discharged from -4°F to 122°F. It is critical to understand the charging temperatures that a battery can sustain. Charge acceptance will be limited if batteries are not kept at the proper temperature because ion combination will take longer. Pressure buildup and sealed battery explosions can occur as a result of high current demands.

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